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Es distribuida sin costo adicional a todos los miembros solventes de la Sociedad Interamericana de Psicologia. Para hacerse miem bro de la Sociedad Interamericana de Psicologia, escriba a: The Journal is published twice a year, and accepts manuscripts in all areas o f Psychology, in English, Spanish or Portuguese.

Neva Milicic M. (Author of Hijos con autoestima positiva)

It is mailed, without additional cost, to all active members of the Interamerican Society o f Psychology. To become a m ember of the Interamerican Society of Psychology, write to: E enviada a todos os membros solventes da Sociedade Interamericana de Psicologia. Para se tomar membro da Sociedade Interamericana de Psicologia, escreva jeva Universidad Central de Venezuela.

Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Universidad de Puerto Rico. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Workers’s Compensation Board of B.

The Pennsylvania State University. University o f Wisconsin-Madison. California School o f Proffesional Psychology. University o f Illinois. Universidad del Valle de Guatemala. University o f British Columbia. The University o f Texas, Austin. University o f Miami. Universidad Estadual de Campinas. University o f San Francisco.

Clinica Escolar Prevencion y Atencion en Redes – Milicic, Mena, Lopez y Justiniano

University hijps f California, San Francisco. Naval Training Systems Center. Universidad de Buenos Aires. University of Hawaii at Manoa. The University o f British Columbia.


Universidad de Santiago autoextima Chile. Coj complex m ulticausal model o f environmental effects. Organisational Psychology and Psychologists in Organisations: Un estudio psicosocial S Negative social identity and socioeconomic crisis: On the millicic of the field: Variations and communalities in understanding human behavior in cultural contex Acerca de la unidad del campo: Culturally-rooted psychology in India: Of actions and deeds: Ethnopsychology in Puerto Rico Acerca de acciones y hechos: La etnopsicologia en Puerto Rico.

Pacheco and Nydia Lucca. Etnopsychology and social values in Colombia La etnopsicologia y los valores sociales en Colombia. Instrucciones para los autores Instructions to authors Instrucoes aos autores. Interamerican Journal o f PsychologyVol.

Gamba University o f San Francisco Cohorts o f randomly selected samples o f Hispanics and nonhispanic whites were interviewed over the telephone in San Francisco, California to ascertain their awareness o f environmental health warning signs displayed in seven different establishments.

Hijos Con Autoestima Positiva Por Neva Milicic M. | eBay

The results showed differences in the reported awareness o f health warning signs across ethnicity, gender, and acculturation level o f the Hispanic respondents.

In general, nonhispanic white respondents reported greater levels gijos f awareness o f the signs in the various establishments than Hispanics. Likewise, males tended to report greater levels o f awareness than females. Among Hispanics, the more acculturated tended to report greater levels o f awareness than the less acculturated Hispanic respondents.

There were increases in reported awareness from the first to the second survey indicating a cumulative effect o f time on levels o f awareness o f environmental milicid warning signs. The authors wish to thank Rosa Marcano, Samuel F.

Gerardo Marin,Department of Psychology. Their utilization together with the use of product warning messages is based on the belief that individuals need to be informed of the consequences of the consumption of a product or of enacting a given behavior before they will consider changing the behavior in question McGuire, While environmental warning signs such as posters or fliers have been legislated in a number of states and localities in the United States and in other countries, their effectiveness has not been fully evaluated.


This article reports the changes in the awareness of the presence of environmental health warning signs in a variety of establishments and across 12 months in cohorts of Hispanics and of nonhispanic whites in the state of California, United States. The experiences with product warning labels health warnings that appear on the container of a product or as an insert in the product s packaging have been for the most part autoeztima Hilton, ; MacKinnon, More recently, studies with cigarette warning labels and alcoholic beverage warning messages have shown an increase in awareness of the message with the passing of time and changes in the behavior of consumers Graves, ; Hankin et al.

In studies with Hispanics, Marin has found greater awareness of product warning messages primarily among the more acculturated respondents who are expected to have greater English-language proficiency. As mentioned above, environmental warning signs have been used in a variety of contexts to promote health-related behavior changes e. As early asthe city ofnew York required that a poster warning of the effects of alcoholic beverage drinking among pregnant women be displayed in establishments serving alcohol.

Similar signs have been legislated in various states in the U. An evaluation of the New York sign showed an increase in information among customers one year after the sign was mandated Prugh, This study evaluates autoesti,a ‘evel ofawareness of environmental warning signs among Hispanics, an ethnic group that has begun to show the deleterious health effects of the consumption of milicicc type of products that environmental warning signs warn about such as alcoholic beverages, tobacco.

It was expected that Hispanics would report hijo levels of awareness than nonhispanic whites and that the more acculturated Hispanics would likewise report greater levels of awareness of the message than the less acculturated Hispanics. Out of the autoesfima 2, respondents, 1, The findings reported below are based on the Hispanics and nonhispanic whites who were initially interviewed in and also a year later.

Despite efforts at the time of the initial interview to obtain enough information that would allow for a follow-up of the respondents twelve months later, a number of respondents were lost to follow-up Hispanics and nonhispanic whites. At the time of the initial interview, all respondents were asked to provide their name and telephone number as well as the name and telephone number of a relative or close friend who would know how to contact the interviewees in case they moved.

The majority of failures to re-interview A smaller proportion of these failures to reinterview were due to telephones being disconnected Table 1 presents a summary o f the demographic characteristics ofthe respondents in each ethnic group who were interviewed on both occasions labeled Cohort in the table as well as of those who we were unable to locate Lost to Survey for the second interview. Nevertheless, the two Hispanic subgroups cohort and lost to survey did not differ at the time of the initial interview in their level o f acculturation or in the amount of formal education they had received.

Also as expected, the majority of the Hispanic respondents were from Central America Respondents hiojs the survey in the language of their choice English or Spanish. General awareness of environmental warning signs was measured by asking respondents to report awareness of any health warning signs that may be displayed in various types of establishments e. Cigarette consumption was measured by asking respondents to report the usual number of cigarettes they smoked in a day.


Those respondents who reported smoking at least one cigarette per day were considered smokers. Respondents were asked to report the number of days in which they drank beer within the 30 days prior to the survey, the number of beers consumed per day, and the total number of beers consumed over the same 30 day period.


Similar questions were asked separately for wine and distilled spirits.

Respondents who reported drinking at least one beer or glass of wine or drink of distilled spirits within the previous 30 days were considered drinkers. The four items measure language preference and use and are answered on a five-point Likert-format scale. Based on previous studies Marin, ; Marin, et al. Procedure Respondents were initially sampled in usingthemitofsky-waksberg method for random digit dialing Waksberg,a procedure that reduces the number of unproductive dialings by eliminating nonworking prefixes, avoids the use of directories with their inherent problem of exclusion of unlisted numbers while guaranteeing equal probability of selection for all telephone numbers.

Interviews in both surveys were conducted overthe telephone by experienced bilingual and bicultural interviewers of both genders. For the initial survey, a household was considered to be eligible if those answering the telephone self-identified as Hispanics, Latinos or Caucasians or identified the majority o f residents in the household as belonging to either group.

For the follow-up survey conducted inall individuals initially surveyed in were called at the telephone number where they were first interviewed. Those individuals who had moved or changed their telephone numbers were called at their new telephone number even if they had moved.

Whenever a nonworkin” number was found or in those cases where the respondent had moved, efforts were made to obtain the new telephone number.

First, telephone directories were consulted and directory assistance services were called in order to find the respondent s new telephone number. In addition, calls inquiring for the new telephone number were made to relatives or friends of the respondents whose names and telephone numbers had been provided by them at the time of the first survey. When practical, telephone service subscribers with the same last name as the respondent were also called in order to identify relatives who could provide the respondent s new telephone number.

During the second survey, each unanswered telephone number was called 12 times at different times and days of the week before considering the respondent as lost to survey. In reporting the data, the chi-square statistic is reported for comparisons between surveys or Survey 1 vs or Survey 2 to determine the significance in the differences between specific proportions of respondents reporting awareness o f the environmental warning signs. In orderto control forthe effect of multiple statistical analyses, we have used Bonferoni s correction.

Table 2 shows he proportion of Hispanic and NonHispanic white respondents who reported seeing in a specific place and within the 12 months prior to the survey, a warning sign indicating that the state of California had determined that exposure to certain products may be dangerous to people s health.

As shown in Table 2, in both surveys, Hispanicsand nonhispanic whites were most aware of an environmental health warning sign in a restaurant. The greatest increases in awareness of environmental warning signs for Hispanics were in terms of seeing one in a bar an increase of 5.

The largest increase in reported awareness for nonhispanic whites were for a sign in a supermarket an increase of Degrees of freedom for all chi-square tests are equal to one. In general, both surveys indicated higher percentages of nonhispanic whites being aware of environmental warning signs in a bar, a supermarket, a restaurant, and a gas station.